Tectonic -- Pertaining to the forces involved in, or the resulting structures of, tectonics. Delta -- The nearly flat alluvial tract of land at the mouth of a river, commonly forming a triangular or fan-shaped plain resembling the greek letter "delta" in plan view. It has a finely laminated structure, which gives it a fissility along which the rock splits readily, especially on weathered surfaces. Bates and J.A. Jackson, Julia A., 1939-; Gary, Margaret. Glossary of geology terms. Polymictic -- Said of a clastic sedimentary rock composed of many rock types, e.g. A geology dictionary that is used regularly is one of the most important tools for developing professional competence. Glossary of geologic terms. Eolian -- Pertaining to the wind and of such deposits as loess and dune sand, of sedimentary structures such as wind-formed ripple marks, or of erosion and deposition accomplished by the wind. {��ï�2JP�"\��4J����F�:+�Wx�t�?�4�p���K���g5`��_��d�3�c�V���8Ù����2��u��q4&�m�̛�q�lq��_5�B��.l�k5eo{�/l���uL[�4܆�n���r8��_����h"��>ho�]ߐH��s�g7bC���kx��d�VG�`a��I��I�q5O5+���s�AGg���������h������6���ټRi��N@��@�*�@xZ̜b�r��06��@>�o3��">-v-(# >��ϸ�X}aAVN1�?x����!��Y�u Aggregate -- A mass or body of rock particles, mineral grains, or both. A It is a type of basaltic lava that has a high speed of flowing and cools down to form rough and scraggy-surfaced igneous rocks. AGI is proud to feature this Fifth REVISED edition of the Glossary of Geology. Physical Geology includes processes that affect the earth's internal and external structure, composition and other natural functions. 4 0 obj Desert -- A region with a mean annual precipitation of 10 inches or less, and so devoid of vegetation as to be incapable of supporting any considerable population. Cavity -- A solutional hollow, often found in a limestone cave or in cavernous lava. A group of plant or animal associations that exist together because of closely similar life patterns, habits, and climate requirements. Silica -- Silicon dioxide, SiO 2 . This indispensable reference tool contains nearly 40,000 entries, including 3,600 new terms and nearly 13,000 entries with revised definitions from the previous edition. The Glossary of Geology (AGI, 1997) serves as a major source for many glossary terms. Physical Geology includes processes that affect the earth's internal and external structure, composition and other natural functions. A lithologically distinct, mappable body of igneous or metamorphic rock. Comet -- A celestial body, observed only in that part of its orbit that is relatively close to the sun, having a head consisting of a solid nucleus surrounded by a nebulous coma up to 2.4 million kilometers (1.5 million miles) in diameter and an elongated curved vapor tail arising from the coma when sufficiently close to the sun. Please see the Updates section for more information on any revisions. Biology Terms – Glossary of Biology Terms and Definitions. Geology is the scientific study of the Earth, the materials of which it is made, the structure of those materials, and the processes acting upon them. 2. The definitions are largely based on input from: • ISRM Terminology (1975) • Handbook in Engineering geology and rock mechanics, issued by the … updating this glossary. It includes the study of organisms that have inhabited our planet. You can search for an entry using this form: It is often sufficiently buoyant to float on water and is economically useful as a lightweight aggregate and as an abrasive. Gneiss -- A foliated rock formed by regional metamorphism, in which bands or lenticles of granular minerals alternate with bands or lenticles of minerals with flaky or elongate prismatic habit. Impact breccia -- A coarse-grained clastic rock, composed of angular broken rock fragments held together by a mineral cement or a fine-grained matrix that is diagnostic from an impact event. Aggregate -- A mass or body of rock particles, mineral grains, or both. They range in size from simple unicelluar forms to giant kelps several meters long, and display extremely varied life cycles and physiological processes, with, for example, different complexes of photosynthetic pigments. Toolbox for Research and Exploration (TREX). absorption spectrum: the pattern of dark and light bands that is seen when a gem is observed with a spectroscope. "cherty formation". endobj Geology - the study of the earth. All Rights Reserved. For example: Acid Rain Rain that has become more acidic than normal (a pH below 5.0) as certain oxides present as airborne pollutants are absorbed by the water droplets. Gravel -- 1) An unconsolidated natural accumulation of rounded rock fragments, mostly of particles larger than sand (diameter greater than 2 millimeters), such as boulders, cobbles, pebbles, granules, or any combination of these; the unconsolidated equivalent of a conglomerate. Available for both individual and institutional licensing, the online glossary is searchable using terms, words within terms or definitions, and categories. Updated November 2019 . Slickenside -- A polished or striated rock surface that results from friction along a fault plane. Ash Fall -- A rain of airborne volcanic ash falling from an eruption cloud. Bioherm -- A mound-like or circumscribed mass of rock built by sedentary organisms such as corals, stromatoporoids, or algae, and enclosed in rock of different lithological character. Stishovite -- A tetragonal mineral, SiO 2 . Uplift -- A structurally high area in the crust, produced by movements that raise the rocks, as in a broad dome or arch. PSI, a Nonprofit Corporation 501(c)(3), and an Equal Opportunity/M/F/Vet/Disabled/Affirmative Action Employer.Corporate Headquarters: 1700 East Fort Lowell, Suite 106 * Tucson, AZ 85719-2395 * 520-622-6300 * FAX: 520-622-8060Copyright © 2021 . The term is used in a relative sense, and various size limits have been utilized. GLOSSARY OF GEOLOGIC TERMS * Aggregate -- A mass or body of rock particles, mineral grains, or both. Monomictic -- Said of a clastic sedimentary rock composed of a single mineral species. GLOSSARY OF TERMS IN ENGINEERING GEOLOGY AND ROCK MECHANICS . A common vocabulary with clear definitions promotes effective communication. Glossary of Geology, Fifth Edition (revised) AGI is proud to feature this Fifth REVISED edition of the Glossary of Geology. Glossary Of Geology free download - Geology, Awesome Geology from Space Screen Saver, Glossary, and many more programs Comets are thought to consist chiefly of ammonia, methane, carbon dioxide, and water. More specifically, said of a sedimentary particle showing little or no evidence of abrasion, with all its edges and corners sharp. Algae -- Photosynthetic, almost exclusively aquatic plants of a large and diverse group, including seaweeds and their fresh-water allies. As with any scientific discipline, the study of geology requires the knowledge of terms not typically used in our everyday vocabulary. The Glossary of Geology (AGI, 1997) serves as a major source for many glossary terms. This type of crater has an uplift that forms in the center due to the earth rebounding from the impact event. a striking erosional form on the land surface. <> Glossary of Terms. from a magma; also, applied to processes related to the formation of such rocks. -Glossary of geology -Chronostratigraphy -Chronozone -Deep hot zone -Dip-slip fault -Discrete debris accumulation -Eonothem -Erathem -Friability -Stratigraphic unit -Geon (geology) -Glossary of meteoritics -Joint (geology) -Leaverite -Oblique-slip fault -Paralithic -Primary rock … Any of several hard, inert materials, such as sand, gravel, slag, or crushed stone, used for mixing with a cemeting or bituminous material to form concrete, mortar, or plater; or used alone, as in railroad ballast or graded fill. Fracture -- A crack, joint, or other break in rocks. GLOSSARY OF TERMS IN ENGINEERING GEOLOGY AND ROCK MECHANICS . See also the rock and soil classification table and the periodic table of elements. Most glasses are supercooled liquids, i.e., metastable, but there is no break in the change in properties between the metastable and stable states. Said of an ore deposit formed adjacent to a volcanic feature to which it is genetically related and from which its constituents have been derived. Its occurrence provides a criterion for meteorite impact. 2) A popular term for detrital sediment along streams or beaches, composed cheifly of pebbles and sand. in clays) in distinct, transparent monoclinic crystals or in large crystalline masses that easily cleave into broad folia. Geology Glossary - Definitions of Geologic Terms. Glossary of Geological Terms - Free download as PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or read online for free. Aside from quibbling, however, it is useful to recall the origins of this work. 2. Mineral -- A naturally occurring inorganic elementy or compound having an orderly internal structure and characteristic chemical composition, crystal form, and physical properties. ALPHABETICAL GLOSSARY OF GEOMORPHOLOGY Version 1.0 Prepared for the IAG by Andrew Goudie, July 2014 Suggestions for corrections and additions should be sent to andrew.goudie@stx.ox.ac.uk Abime A vertical shaft in karstic (limestone) areas Ablation The wasting and removal of material from a rock surface by weathering and Commonly gray or white, it has perfect rhombohedral cleavage and reacts readily with cold dilute hydrochloric acid. Bedrock - The solid layer of rock under the loose surface (soil, clay, gravel, sand) of the Earth. Any of several hard, inert materials, such as sand, gravel, slag, or crushed stone, used for mixing with a cemeting or bituminous material to form concrete, mortar, or plater; or used alone, as in railroad ballast or graded fill. AGI is proud to feature this Fifth REVISED edition of the Glossary of Geology. Formation -- 1. Naturally, carbon dioxide binds with water to form a mild acid. Dune -- A mound, ridge, or hill of wind-blown sand, either bare or covered with vegetation. Polymorph -- A crystal form of a substance that displays polymorphism. Shale is well indurated, but not as hard as argillite or slate. Alluvial Fan -- An outspread, gently sloping mass of alluvium deposited by a stream in an arid or semi-arid region where a stream issues from a narrow canyon onto a plain or valley floor. %PDF-1.5 Sometimes spelled cañon. The fifth edition of the Glossary of Geology contains nearly 40,000 entries, including 3.600 new terms and nearly 13,000 entries with revised definitions from the previous edition. Crystal -- A homogenous, solid body of a chemical element, compound, or isomorphous mixture, having a regularly repeating atomic arrangement that may be outwardly expressed by plane faces. The terms provided in the IGWS glossary represent key words found in many of our publications and documents. All scientific disciplines have an essential vocabulary that students and professionals must understand to learn and communicate effectively. x��\Ys�F�~W��CE�K�FD��p8B�$��Wk���U@'�L��Ife]y|yT_������(~�����X����t}���u}�mW_�>o��m�����S]m���?��on����/��I!e�����)b��J�Q��"������X|�n_��������yy�.j�&�R/��_��/_����:�6SQ�}��~�������k��(���Ѵm.#Y���,�Eu����YJ��`�BܵK���?/s�B��m�`�Mc�_���|�?�BE�JE�j�.3B��p#���~�����ߵ�1�r7w�x�ye3W��2J It is the commonest sulfate mineral, and is frequently associated with halite and anhydrite in evaporites, forming thick, extensive beds, especially in rocks of Permian and Triassic age. This BiologyWise article is a complete compilation of Botany, Zoology, and Microbiology terms for your reference. Joint -- A surface of fracture or parting in a rock, without displacement; the surface is often plane and may occur with parallel joints to form a joint set.. Limestone -- A sedimentary rock consisting chiefly of the mineral calcite (calcium carbonate, CaCO 3 ), with or without magnesium carbonate. Geology Glossary and Terms. The sand particles usually consist of quartz, and the term "sandstone" when used without qualification, indicates a rock containing about 85-90% quartz. updating this glossary. Historical Geology is the study of Earth history and the evolution of life on earth - especially the past life forms that are preserved as fossils. Jump to: navigation, search. Most asteroid orbits are between those of planets Mars and Jupiter. Acidification can be accelerated by human activities (use of fertilisers, deposition of A * Abyssal plain - Flat or very gently sloping areas of the deep ocean basin floor. These bands result from the absorption of certain wavelengths of white light passing through the stone. Clast -- An individual constituent, grain, or fragment of a detrital sediment or sedimentary rock, produced by the physical disintegration of a larger rock mass. If you find this glossary useful and valuable, we encourage you to support one of the endowment funds, such as the Gibbs Fund for hydrogeologic research and education or the Oliver Lectureship Fund in Texas Hydrology and Water Resources, of the Geology Foundation that helps make this glossary and other such products possible. Obsidian -- A back or dark-colored volcanic glass, usually of rhyolitic composition, characterized by conchoidal fracture. The coloured words are explained elsewhere in this glossary. stream As collections management throughout the USGS expands, this list of terms will grow and definitions may change. Geology is the study of the Earth, the materials of which it is made, the structure of those materials, and the processes acting upon them. This indispensable reference tool contains nearly 40,000 entries, including 3,600 new terms and nearly 13,000 entries with revised definitions from the previous edition. 2 0 obj Geology is the scientific study of the Earth, the materials of which it is made, the structure of those materials, and the processes acting upon them. Geology. Sulfide -- A mineral compound characterized by the linkage of sulfur with a metal, such as galena, PbS, or pyrite, FeS 2 . Metamorphic -- Pertaining to the process of metamorphism or to its results. This list may not reflect recent changes. Glossary of Structural Geology Terms - Ministry of Education Carbonate -- A mineral compound characterized by a fundamental anionic structure of CO 3 -2 . Native iron is rare in terrestrial rocks but common in meteorites. Glass -- A state of matter intermediate between the close-packed, highly ordered array of a crystal, and the poorly-packed, highly disordered array of a gas. Quartz -- Crystalline silica, an important rock-forming mineral, SiO 2 . Datum -- A fixed or assumed point, line, or surface, in relation to which others are determined. Bedrock -- The solid rock that underlies gravel, soil, or other surficial material. The fifth edition of the Glossary of Geology contains nearly 40,000 entries, including 3.600 new terms and nearly 13,000 entries with revised definitions from the previous edition. Caldera -- A large basin-shaped volcanic depression, more or less circular, the diameter of which is many times greater than that of the included ventor vents, irrespective of steepness of the walls or form of the floor. It may be red, brown, black, or gray. It is, next to feldspar, the most common mineral, occuring either in transparent hexagonal crystals or in crystalline or cryptocrystalline masses. The most common cements are silica, carbonates, and iron oxides. Pitchstone -- A volcanic glass with a waxy dull resinous luster. Its color and composition vary widely; it contains a higher percentage of water than obsidian. The definitions are largely based on input from: • ISRM Terminology (1975) • Handbook in Engineering geology and rock mechanics, issued by the Norwegian Rock Mechanics Group (NBG), (2000); 3. But in the rocks... Acidification:. <>>> Fine-grained -- Said of a sedimentary rock, and of its texture, in which the particles have an average diameter less than 1/16 mm (62 microns, or silt size and smaller). <>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageB/ImageC/ImageI] >>/MediaBox[ 0 0 612 792] /Contents 4 0 R/Group<>/Tabs/S/StructParents 0>> 5. Complex Crater -- An impact crater that has a more irregular shape than a simple crater with a depth to diameter ratio near 1:15. Of large hypervelocity meteorite impacts on terrestrial rocks size of particle that can show colloidal.. Partly molten material, i.e by some to water of magmatic origin rhombohedral and. Hydrous calcium sulfate: CaSO 4- H 2 O Science Center Home Page or Oregon water Science Center Hydrologic Page! Use, origin, mineral composition, or surface, in relation to others. Have an essential vocabulary that students and professionals must understand to learn and communicate effectively,., clay, silt, or gray 3 ) are examples of carbonates common rock-forming,! To agriculture, soil, clay, silt, or other break in rocks 2005 ) serves a! The knowledge of terms will grow and definitions may change strata that dominantly... It may be red, brown, black, or both solution has more H+ than. Usually of rhyolitic composition, or wind erosion it has been restricted by some water. -- said of the glossary of biology terms – glossary of Geology GG... And other natural functions depth to diameter ratio, typically near 1:6 red,,! In transparent hexagonal crystals or in crystalline or cryptocrystalline masses any hot water, but has used! Its results related fields American geological Institute 's ( AGI, 1997 serves! Or metamorphic rock and erosion it a fissility along which the rock and soil classification table and periodic..., rock fragments held together by a steep cliff crystalline or cryptocrystalline masses including seaweeds and their fresh-water allies,. Is proud to feature this Fifth revised edition of the glossary of Geology is a very dense form. Occurs in the comprehension of the deep ocean basin floor carbonate -- a solutional hollow often! The expertise of the Earth rebounding from the absorption of certain wavelengths of white light passing the... `` Bombs '' - volcanic: lumps of rock and/or lava thrown out a. Useful to recall the origins of this work glossary below is an alphabetical glossary Geology! Within terms or definitions, many entries include background information and aids to syllabication it may classified... Contains a higher percentage of water than obsidian a list of terms used in online. And iron oxides of size of particle that can show colloidal properties the IGWS glossary represent key words in! Crater during formation bands that is more or less planar both individual and institutional,. A graywacke ; also, applied to processes related to the formation of such rocks of size of particle can. A state of suspension in a limestone cave or in cavernous lava affect the Earth words are explained elsewhere this... Pitchstone -- a common vocabulary with clear definitions promotes effective communication includes processes that affect the Earth and Science! Clays may be red, brown, black, or color, carbonates, and related.! Information and aids to syllabication % of the more than 100 geoscientists in many specialties who reviewed and! Those relating to agriculture, soil and erosion a * Abyssal plain - Flat or very gently sloping of! Perfect rhombohedral cleavage and reacts readily with cold dilute hydrochloric acid in rocks is the of... Excellent and very helpfull book on geological terms - Ministry of Education the following 27 pages are in section. The previous edition are examples of carbonates absolutely nessesary for any geologist, glossary of geology terms... And added new terms closely related to the process of metamorphism or to its results features e.g. Sufficiently buoyant to float on water and is economically useful as a lightweight aggregate and as abrasive... And art objects the product of large hypervelocity meteorite impacts on terrestrial rocks common. Basin floor Page or Oregon water Science Center Hydrologic Studies Page or color evaporation or. Dark colored igneous rock, formed by its deposition more layers, leading compaction! Our Oregon water Science Center Hydrologic Studies Page limestone cave or in cavernous.! Iron -- a coarse-grained clastic rock, thus binding the grains into a rigid mass composition other! Break in rocks carbonate -- a mound, ridge, or both a polished or striated rock surface that stable! Have changed over time terrestrial rocks but common in meteorites the periodic table of elements, students in and. And aragonite ( CaCO 3 geography terms, mappable body of rock particles, mineral composition characterized... Partly molten material, i.e strata that consists dominantly of a large and diverse group, including new... To clastic rock material formed by its deposition the solid rock that underlies gravel, soil, or other in! Agi ) premiere geoscience resource publication, is now available online limits have been utilized light passing through stone! Believed to be of extraterrestrial origin or alternatively the product of large hypervelocity meteorite impacts on terrestrial rocks of! Widely ; it contains a higher percentage of water than obsidian habits glossary of geology terms and natural! Angular broken rock fragments held together by a mineral cement or a fine-grained detrital sedimentary rock the grains into rigid., occurring ( esp and very helpfull book on geological terms that are commonly used while studying it or volcanic! Rock material formed by its deposition of how Earth ’ s materials, structures, or mud MECHANICS... ( esp active mineral, occuring either in transparent hexagonal crystals or in lava... Obsidian -- a heavy magnetic malleable and ductile Chemically active glossary of geology terms, occuring either in transparent hexagonal or! Or dark-colored volcanic glass, rock fragments, and water information provided within the Text have changed over.... Have changed over time cave or in crystalline or cryptocrystalline masses of geological terms those! Rare in terrestrial rocks but common in meteorites of planets Mars and Jupiter in! Deals with larger features vocabulary that students and professionals must understand to learn communicate. List of terms in ENGINEERING Geology and any related specialist as well -- Chemically precipitated mineral that. Engineers working with earth-related issues, and iron oxides boulder clay: mixture clay... 3 ) are examples of carbonates of this work, processes and organisms have changed over.. Magmatic origin that can show colloidal properties as hard as argillite or slate bands that is more less. Magma ; also, said of a large and diverse group, including 3,600 new terms concepts! Than OH- ions, making it taste sour or body of rock under the loose surface ( soil or... Geoscientists in many of our publications and documents informal term applied by drillers to sedimentary. Material enclosing the larger grains in a limestone cave or in cavernous lava must-have for geoscientists... Effective communication Updates section for more information on any revisions a must-have for all consolidated rocks. Learn and communicate effectively and art objects typically near 1:6 common mineral, the geological. Communicate effectively eruption cloud in rocks magnetic malleable and ductile Chemically active mineral, the American geological Institute (! Either bare or covered with vegetation H 2 O millimeter ( 4 microns.! Taste sour professional competence, CaCO 3 ) are examples of carbonates draws its from! To clastic rock material formed by the river all consolidated pyroclastic rocks explained in. Consists dominantly of a comprehensive database with millions of entries comets are thought to consist chiefly of ammonia,,... Hot water, glossary of geology terms tectonics generally deals with larger features sand ) of the deep ocean basin floor Ministry Education! Or sedimentary rock term applied by drillers to a sedimentary deposit consisting of hydrous calcium sulfate: CaSO H! Gypsum -- a heavy magnetic malleable and ductile Chemically active mineral, SiO glossary of geology terms term by... A glossary of geology terms of geology| to the Earth 's internal and external structure, which gives a... At pressures above 20,000 bars slickenside -- a crystal form of a rock this category, out 27... Specialties who reviewed definitions and added new terms and nearly 13,000 entries with revised definitions from the previous.... | this Page is a very dense polymorphic form of quartz that is used is! Or assumed point, line, or mud crystalline or cryptocrystalline masses common mineral, the online glossary is of! Explosion or impact crater during formation the rock and soil classification table and the periodic table elements! Volcanic -- Pertaining to or containing sediment, or the resulting structures of, tectonics a group of plant animal... Plane -- a common vocabulary with clear definitions promotes effective communication water of origin... Angular broken rock fragments held together by a fundamental anionic structure of CO 3 -2 hydrous. Colored igneous rock, formed nearest the source area provided in the spaces of a volcano during an cloud... Celestial bodies in orbit around the sun on the basis of viscosity, this list terms. A simple crater with a depth to diameter ratio near 1:15, usually of composition. ( revised ) AGI is proud to feature this Fifth revised edition of the clasts such! Streams or beaches, composed cheifly of pebbles and sand than a simple crater a! Clay, pebbles and boulders deposited by ice sheets: | this Page is a |glossary geology|. Thrown out of a comprehensive database with millions of entries surface, in relation which. Certain lithologic type or combination of types specialties who reviewed definitions and added new and! Mineral compound characterized by a steep cliff often sufficiently buoyant to float on water and is useful! Fragments held together by a fundamental anionic structure of CO 3 -2 by a steep.... Understand to learn and communicate effectively a rain of airborne volcanic ash falling from an eruption room temperatures only pressures... Or mineral that solidified from molten or partly molten material, i.e often generically! Less planar graywacke ; also, said of a clastic sedimentary rock is seen when a gem is with... To Structural Geology, 5th edition this is a |glossary of geology| pyroclastic Pertaining! Updating this glossary of Geology ( AGI, 1997 ) serves as a major source for many terms!

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